Wednesday, July 8, 2020

Customer Relationship Management Systems Essay - 1375 Words

Customer Relationship Management Systems (Essay Sample) Content: Customer Relationship Management SystemsStudents NameInstitutionDate Trusty Carpets is a small business that has been operating for the last twenty years in the industry. It is however facing a lot of challenges in its bid to cope with the competition and the demanding environment in which it operates. Trusty Carpets has a small number of employees and still carries out some of its operations manually. It has a lot of paperwork and in attempt to improve its systems, it faced with financial constraints such that the intervention of a bank is needed for funding. In addition, it wants to expand by acquiring another business whose owner wants to quit the market. It is therefore easy for this company to achieve its goals by operating in the old ways and that is why intending to use a Customer Relations Management system, which will help to boost sales. In order to effectively manage its customers and improve the customer experience, which will in return lead to increased s ales and profits, Trusty Carpets has opted to develop a Customer Relations Management system to carry out the following roles: Manage contacts database, Automate sales, Report sales, Automate the marketing, Client management and bulk Emails.Components of the CRMThe system will consist of several software applications and hardware such as monitors, power supply and backup including the CPUs that work together to create an effective system. Human resources will be required for controlling purposes and data input, which will be processed within the system and stored in magnetic tapes such as flash disks and memory cards. Others will include Microsoft Windows, Internet explorer, Exchange Servers, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Dynamics and SQL Server. The goal of this system will be customer satisfaction. Trusty Carpets intends to have its customers fully satisfied by all means. It is expected that once every customer is satisfied, they are more likely to return to the premises of the firm for repeat purchase. This will by all means promote the companys good name and also refer other customers to the same place for their needs. This CRM is aimed at making the customers to want and feel more engaged in the company and also feel valued by being listened to, consulted and respected. This will improve consumer experience, which will make them want to come back again (Bygstad, 2003).The CRM will also enable running of an efficient business: the use of the CRM will help the business to establish better working practices among departments. Its implementation will aid in reacting to customers queries and concerns quickly and more efficiently. This will therefore boost the companys productivity and add to customer satisfaction. Satisfied customers, who will return for more business, are the overall goal of this CRM system.This CRM will be used to produce improved and better marketing campaigns. This will be possible because the CRM will work out on whom to target and the kind of communication mode they will easily and quickly respond to. This will be used in implementing great and more efficient campaign for promotion and marketing. With the CRM data, it is also possible to profile the target groups which are nonperforming in order to know what methods to use to boost sales in such an area, bearing in mind the ultimate goal of profit maximisation.To gain new customers, CRM will still be used. CRM will help Trusty Carpets to find out a lot of useful information about its customer base, and will allow us to fix gaps that need to be filled. It is the CRM system, which help us to explore the reasons why customers fail to make frequent purchases or why they do not prefer the company as the best to acquire the carpets (Pai Tu, 2011). By so doing, we will be in a position to adapt new policies in order to attract new customers. The same principles will apply where is a need to work out why previous customers may have stopped using our carpets or why they may prefer to visit our competitors instead. Finally, the CRM will boost sales. This is the last objective, which drives all the others. Due to the evident competition in the market today we need to be at the forefront as far as it is concerned with our sales. It is therefore important more than ever that our business stay relevant by keeping offering new products and deals to the clients (Starkey Woodcock, 2002). This will be achieved through improving the way the business operates, the interaction between the customer and the business and ensuring that effective marketing strategies are produced. This CRM will be the spearhead in improving the way our business is positioned among our competitors and attract new customers, and ensure that existing customers keep coming back. Without any doubts, this will boost the profits and help keep the company ahead of the competitors.The proposed technological solution will also be lead-generation enabledlead generation involves finding new cus tomers by generating pointers automatically from different sources such as website visitors by use of click-stream technology, social media networks, inbound calls, and newsletter sign-ups, among other sources of data.The CRM will also be prospect-nurturing enabled.Prospect nurturing uses pre-set communications vial electronic mail and other tasks to automatically follow up with leads. The CRM will nurture prospects through the entire sales pipeline all the way from lead generation to closing the sale (Bull, 2003).The system will also include email marketing service.Electronic mail marketing robotically builds mailing lists, launches online marketing campaigns via email and measures performance. The CRM solution will be used to send email reminders to customers and prospects with an aim of driving sales. To drive sales in the organization, sales quotes and invoices ought to be automated.CRM technological solution will be used to create and store sales quotes for both individual cust omers and customers in groups (Stein Smith, 2009). CRM will also process the quotes robotically into invoices when they are ready to purchase, which are then received by the POS, accounting department and other designated solutions.As such, the CRM will give a whole new and integrated solution to the management of invoicing. In addition to invoicing, with the CRM system the firm will be receive tracking information straight from the CRM dashboard. All information about the order will be appearing on the customers' individual accounts, which will allow swift and expedient access.The proposed solution will also enable Trusty Carpets to project their sales and also meas...

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Proposed Defunding Of Agricultural Classes On The Nation...

As of March of 2016, Gov. Bruce Rauner of Illinois has proposed defunding of agricultural classes in his state. Think about this, the governor of a state where one in four jobs in Illinois are directly related to agriculture wants to give a grand total of zero dollars to the Future Farmers of America along with ag classes in general. This is the reason that schools not only should offer agriculture related classes, but in order to graduate from high school every student should at least take one class of ag. At the end of the day all people must know where the nation’s food comes from and how it gets from the pasture to the store. There are only two percent of the nation s population that are farmers. Two percent of the people in America raise the crops and the meat for the whole country. This number needs to change in order to ensure that children and the nation’s children will be able to survive. Today’s kids do not know where their food is from which means they take farmers for granted. One personal story that can be recalled happened just recently. A student pointed to a turkey and asked â€Å"What is that? A giant rooster?† The response was â€Å"No, that is a turkey, and they come from turkey houses.† This is what brought up the thought of just how important ag education is. The ones in the field work very hard to improve the ways of life for the animals and plants they grow so that the people of America can eat. A recent study showed that U.S. cattle ranchers raise just

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Patriot Act The Laws Of Our Country - 2611 Words

The USA PATRIOT Act The laws of our country are very important to us and are what makes us unique from other nations. When something like the USA PATRIOT Act is passed, this law interferes with the privacy of citizens and contradicts our constitutional rights. The USA PATRIOT Act is one of the laws that has ignited a heated debate as many people criticize its abuse in implementation. The PATRIOT Act launched in 2001 as a reaction to the increased stress of terrorism attacks. The main purpose of the deed was to intercept the obstacles that made the process of detecting terrorist attacks difficult and slow. The Act gave the FBI the right to make urgent searches and arrests without having any arrest warrant or even a court order. This was to facilitate speedy action against suspects of terrorist acts. It is clear that the PATRIOT Act paved way for abuse of citizens’ rights of privacy and this was a full disregard for the constitution. The PATRIOT Act was launched in 2001 in the wake of terrorism as a way of aiding the government to respond promptly to the terrorist attacks. One of the provisions of the Act is that the FBI could conduct investigations with delayed search warrants and wiretap communications without the consent of the public. This allowed the FBI to view the houses of people they suspected to be involved with terrorism, investigate their bank accounts without even informing them prior to the deed. In summation, they could request for the information ofShow MoreRelated The Patriot Act Essay1684 Words   |  7 PagesThe Patriot Act After the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001 our country underwent a change that has drastically affected the fundamental values that our founding fathers instilled in this country. Since that tragic day in September the aftermath of the attacks has started to implicate our Civil Liberties that in this country we hold so dear. Just 45 days after the September 11 attacks, with virtually no debate, Congress passed the USA Patriot Act on October 5th, 2001. This act expandedRead MorePrison1287 Words   |  6 PagesUSA Patriot Act (2001) University of phoenix Legal issues in justice and security AJS 522 Kim Tandy July 15, 2013 USA Patriot Act (2001) On September 11, 2001 19 Al-Queda members attacked New York and Washington D.C. by hijacking four passenger airliners. Two of the airplanes American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines 175 were crashed into the north and south towers of the World Trade Centers in New York City. American Airlines Flight 77 crashed into the Pentagon which collapsed theRead MoreThe Patriot Act; Agree of Disagree877 Words   |  4 PagesThe Patriot Act: Agree or Disagree Amanda Collier ENG/215 August 27, 2012 Bruce Massis The Patriot Act: Agree or Disagree President George W. Bush signed into law on October 26, 2001 The USA PATRIOT Act. The title of the Act is a letter acronym: Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (PUBLIC LAW 107–56—OCT. 26, 2001) This Act was written to prevent and punish terrorist acts here in the United States as wellRead MoreUsa Patriot Act Of 2001917 Words   |  4 PagesUSA Patriot Act of 2001 In 2001, George W. Bush signed a law to provided tools to catch and prevent terrorism. It was called the USA Patriot Act of 2001. It was George W. Bush’s response to the terrorist attack that took place in September 11, 2001 in New York and Pentagon. The Law ensured security and safety for the citizens but it also violated individual right. The law took a lot of criticism because it violated constitutional right, and it created problems between individual right perspectiveRead More The War on Terrorism is an Attack on American Civil Liberties835 Words   |  4 PagesAttack on American Civil Liberties After the attacks on 9/11 our country has been forced to confront the issue of terrorism.   The war on terrorism has ignited a war on our civil liberties.   Our civil liberties have been affected by the passing of the Patriot Act, the violation of privacy, and an increase in racial profiling. Civil liberties have been affected immensely by the Patriot Act.   A brief definition of the Patriot Act is; uniting and strengthening America by providing appropriate toolsRead MoreThe Patriot Act Of 2001 Essay1224 Words   |  5 Pageseye our lives in America changed forever. We were attacked, on our own soil, not once, but four times. That fourth plane didn’t make it to its destination, thanks to the brave souls aboard that sacrificed their lives to save others. On that fateful day 2,753(NYmag) families would never be the same, as well as the rest of us that watch in disbelief. The attacks on September 11th 2001 led to something called the Patriot Act. In the days after 9/11 Congress hurried to pass a bill to give law-enforcementRead MoreThe Hijacked American Airlines Flight 111459 Words   |  6 Pages9/11, Attorney General Ashcroft gave instructions to a dozen of law makers and advisors on his staff to research a new antiterrorism law package. Assistant Attorney Ge neral Viet Dinh told the group that â€Å"all that is necessary for law enforcement, within the bounds of the constitution, to discharge the obligation to fight this war on terror.† The result would be the Patriot Act. (Stefoff, 2011 p. 13) What is the Patriot Act? The Patriot Act was passed to unite and strengthen America by providing appropriateRead More The Patriot Act Essay1142 Words   |  5 PagesThe Patriot Act In the wake of September 11, many things happened very quickly. Along with the beginning of a war against terrorism, an act was passed to help prevent future terrorism in the USA. The name of this is the USA Patriot Act. The act legalizes many surveillance techniques that were once prohibited. The act has been passed without debate, and the new privileges given to our government have not been thoroughly examined. The law enforcers of our country are now capable of monitoringRead MoreThe Patriot Act And The United States1376 Words   |  6 Pageshappening again. Consequently, an act known as the USA PATRIOT act was passed by Congress. This act opened up many doors previously closed to law enforcement and intelligence agencies. With these new opportunities available to them, they have the capability to obtain information about specific individuals believed to be involved in terrorist activities and organizations. Very beneficial to the United States, the Patriot Act provides easi er access for different government law enforcement agencies to shareRead MoreImpact of the Usa Patriot Act on Local Law Enforcement1282 Words   |  6 PagesUSA Patriot Act on Local Law Enforcement Teddilane Turner PSF8200 Advanced Research in Public Safety Issues, Theory, and Concepts This paper presents the topic selected for the final Public Safety Case Analysis Project, an overview of the USA Patriot Act, its impact on local law enforcement, and the potential for net widening. Congress reacted to the violation to our country on September 11, 2001 by passing the USA Patriot Act into law on October 26, 2001. (USA Patriot Act, 2001)

Leadership Structures Relationships and Process †

Question: Discuss about the Leadership Structures Relationships and Processes. Answer: Introduction: Past: While working in a team, the most essential element is Management communication and cooperation. Cooperation is established when there is effective communication among the team members. In past, the communication in my team members was ineffective. It was because formal channels were used like emails, meetings, notice boards and letter heads which fail in understanding each other personally. People in my team used to fear in keeping their ideas and opinions because they did not have idea how the leader or manager would react on it (Arnold Boggs, 2015). Present: At present, looking at the flaws of team and the bonding between the team members. The team leader started to communicate in a better way to the team members. For the purpose of same, Facebook and other social media are introduced so that the team members get to know each other on a personal level too. This enhances the personal relationships among the team members as well and helps in deriving the better results in the team. The team members starts to open up their ideas and opinions which might help the team a lot. The one on one face to face communication was introduced which helped the team in sharing their problems as well (Hills, 2014). Future: The future seems positive after applying and using these communication methods within a team. The communication strategy will help the company in handling diversity at workplace in the age of globalisation. Good communication will help my team to share their problems and the managers would be able to correct their employees which will preserve them from conducting the same mistakes again. Good communication will help in supporting the strategies of the organisation and the goals of business. It will also help in reducing and minimising the conflicts at the workplace (Farrell, 2013). The manner in which your team made decisions e.g. consensus, authoritarian, majority. Past: I work in a team of 10 people where every team members has a defined role to play. The team members have an important role to play in the team decision making but the decisions in the team were made by following the authoritarian method where only the leader used to decide and take the decisions and inform the teams about it. The leader used to take decisions which the team had to follow. The inputs from team members were not given any of the importance. For e.g. once a 2 key members of the team were not able to attend the meeting and the leader cancelled the meeting at the last moment and just informed the rest of the team members. Present: The authoritarian method of decision making is not effective to develop team collaboration. To meet these challenge, the team now focus on taking consensus from the team members and then take a decision so that every member feel their importance in the team and give best of their efforts. Now, in the team the consensus is taken from each of the members and the well supported decisions are made. This does not only boosts up the confidence of the team members but also make them more inclined towards the organisation (Hills, 2014). Future: In future, I will make sure that every team members will get an Management equal opportunity to provide their acceptance and then decisions will be taken. This will improve the decision making process of the company and will also increase the effectiveness of the team productivity. This also helps in minimising the complexities and conflicts among the team members and increases the coordination which further helps in getting success to the whole team. I am also planning to arrange the training and development programs for developing effective communication among the team members (Arnold Boggs, 2015). Potential communication barriers that were present in your team. Past: Communication barrier is one of the most common barriers in the teams. IN my team, there are members from diffrent backgrounds, culture, thoughts and language they speak. These differences among the team members used to create barriers when the members used to communicate with each other. The barriers like lack of attention and differences of perception among the team members used to create obstacles which also affected the productivity and decision making process of the company. There were also the physical communication barriers as only the formal communication channels were used. The people were not connected to each other which lead to lesser interactions and they were just in formal terms with each other (Farrell, 2013). Present: At present, I am focusing on establishing good communication between the members of team so that they can feel connected to the team and to the organisation. I am planning for team outings and team gatherings outside the office so that information communication can be established and the members can overcome the barriers of communication which were affecting them earlier. I encouraged people to do social interaction so that the differences in perception and backgrounds can be met out. The team members are now open to each other and they share their emotions and opinions with each other which help me in setting the coordination in the team. Future: In future, I believe that if the social interactions will be maintained effectively, the communication barriers will be cleared completely. Clear and concise communication will be established which will not only motivate the team members but also make it easy for the company to achieve their Management goals and objectives easily than before. The training sessions will also help people to get along with each other and understanding that how working with each other can fulfil their personal goals along with the organisational goals (Morgeson, Derue Karam, 2010). References Arnold, E C Boggs, K U (2015).Interpersonal relationships: Professional communication skills for nurses. Elsevier Health Sciences. Farrell, T S C (2013).Reflective writing for language teachers. Sheffield: Equinox. Hills, L (2014). Overcoming the Ten Most Common Barriers to Effective Team Communication. Podiatry Management. Morgeson, F P, Derue, D S Karam, E P (2010). Leadership in Teams: A Functional Approach to Understanding Leadership Structures and Processes. Journal of Management, Vol. 36 No. 1.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn, By Samuel Clemens, Also Known As M

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Samuel Clemens, also known as Mark Twain, is probably one of the greatest works of American literature ever written. Ernest Hemingway even said in his book The Green Hills of Africa, "All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn" (Zwick). However, since Twain published Huck Finn 112 years ago, it has been the subject of much criticism, mostly all unfair. The Concord, Ma, banned the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Public Library immediately after its publication in 1885. They said the book was "rough, course, and inelegant...The whole book suited more to the slums than to intelligent respectable people" (as quoted in Clemens 285). Since the original banning of Huck Finn, it has been challenged and banned many times all over the country. Much question has been brought against Huck Finn as to its appropriateness for the reading public, and some of it rightfully so. Huck is not as strong in his morals as our parents and educators would probably like him to be. He is involved in several acts of theft. For example, shortly after the beginning of his journey along the river, he would go ashore and he "lifted a chicken that warn't roosting comfortable..." (Clemens 56). Huck smokes and cuts school. (Clemens 9 and 18) He engages in lying, when he impersonates a girl to visit St. Petersburg and when he tells the bounty hunters that Jim is white and implies that he has smallpox (Clemens 51 and 75). He lies many other times throughout the novel; Huck is a bad example to children who may read this book. Huck's plan to escape from Pap's cabin in the woods, which involves smearing pig's blood all over the cabin and making it seem like a murder had occurred, is an easy scheme for any smart youth to scare his parents with (Clemens 3 1). In October of 1997, a ninth grader in Hollister, California "borrowed" money from his parents and used it to fly to Hawaii. His mother believed that the boy got the idea from his hero, Tom Sawyer (Zwick). Critics claim that the book is full of ideas that cause impressionable children to do things like that (Ockerbloom). Opponents still have more negative arguments about the content of the book. Leslie Fielder, a literary scholar, believes that Huck and Jim engage in some type of homosexual relationship on the raft (Fielder as quoted in Clemens 416). The fact that Huck and Jim seldom wore any clothes on the raft only further substantiates this idea. Additionally, Twain intended Huck Finn to be a humorous novel. However, most of the humor, especially towards the end of the book in the Wilks brothers con, is in poor taste and "inelegant" Boston Transcript. Twain's poking fun at the Hare-lip, and the "long legged under taker" episode were not looked favorably upon at time of publica tion, but are not as much criticized now (Clemens 139 and 144). Today, the main objection to The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is the fact that the book contains the word "nigger" more than two hundred times throughout the novel. As recently as last February, the Pennsylvania branch of the NAACP led a charge against Huck Finn to have it removed from required and optional school reading lists. But, when considering the issues involved, one must keep in mind that this book was written in a different time from that which we live in today. There was no such thing as politically correct. The word "nigger" was a word used commonly and unabashedly back then. So, how can we hold a book written over a hundred years ago to the literary standards of today? Huck Finn is not a racist book, in spite of Huck's initial racist standpoint. Through the course of the novel, Huck gains increasingly more respect for Jim, but still shows some racist attitudes occasionally. After the disagreement with Jim over the biblical story of "ole' King Sollermum", Huck remarks that "you can't learn a nigger to argue," thus implying Jim's stupidity (Clemens 65 and 66). Throughout the book, Huck plays tricks on Jim, which are also meant to make Jim feel stupid. Towards

Monday, March 16, 2020

Guil Naquitz (Mexico) - Key Evidence of Maize Domestication History

Guil Naquitz (Mexico) - Key Evidence of Maize Domestication History Guil Naquitz is one of the most important archaeological sites in the Americas, recognized for its breakthrough discoveries in understanding plant domestication. The site was excavated in the 1970s by KV Flannery, using then-new methods of environmental and ecological sampling, and the results of those sampling techniques and other excavations that followed rewrote what archaeologists had previously understood of the timing of plant domestication. Guil Naquitz is a small cave  occupied at least six times between 8000 and 6500 BC, by hunters and gatherers, probably during the fall (October to December) of the year. The cave is in the Tehuacn valley of the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, about 5 kilometers (3 miles) northwest of the town of Mitla. The mouth of the cave opens near the base of a large ignimbrite cliff rising ~300 meters (~1000 feet) above the valley floor. Chronology and Stratigraphy Five natural strata (A-E) were identified in the cave deposits, which extended to a maximum depth of 140 centimeters (55 inches). Unfortunately, only the top strata (A) can be conclusively dated, based on radiocarbon dates from its living floors and pottery which matches Monte Alban IIIB-IV, ca. 700 AD. The dates of the other strata within the cave are to an extent contradictory: but AMS radiocarbon dates on the plant parts discovered within layers B, C, and D have returned dates to nearly 10,000 years ago, well within the Archaic period and, for the time it was discovered, mind-blowingly early. Considerable and heated debate occurred in the 1970s, particularly about the radiocarbon dates from Guila Naquitzs teosinte (precursor to maize) cob fragments, concerns which largely dissipated after similarly old dates for maize were recovered from the San Marcos and Coxcatlan caves in Oaxaca and Puebla, and the Xihuatoxtla site in Guerrero. Macro and Micro Plant Evidence A wide range of plant food was recovered within the cave deposits of Guil Naquitz, including acorns, pinyon, cactus fruits, hackberries, mesquite pods, and most importantly, the wild forms of bottle gourd, squash and beans. Other plants attested at Guila Naquitz chili peppers, amaranth, chenopodium, and agave. This evidence includes plant partspeduncles, seeds, fruits, and rind fragments, but also pollen and phytoliths. Three cobs with plant elements of both  teosinte (the wild progenitor of  maize)  and maize, were found within the deposits and direct-dated by AMS radiocarbon dating to about 5400 years old; they show some signs of domestication. Squash rinds were also radiocarbon dated: they returned dates of approximately 10,000 years ago. Sources This article is a part of the guide to the American Archaic, and the Dictionary of Archaeology. Benz BF. 2001. Archaeological evidence of teosinte domestication from Guil Naquitz, Oaxaca. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98(4):2105-2106. Crawford GW. 2015. Food Production, Origins of. In: Wright JD, editor. International Encyclopedia of the Social Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition). Oxford: Elsevier. p 300-306. Flannery KV. 1986. Guila Naquitz: Archaic Foraging and Early Agriculture in Oaxaca, Mexico. New York: Academic Press. Marcus J, and Flannery KV. 2004. The coevolution of ritual and society: New 14C dates from ancient Mexico. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101(52):18257–18261. Piperno DR. 2003. A few kernels short of a cob: on the Staller and Thompson late entry scenario for the introduction of maize into northern South America. Journal of Archaeological Science 30(7):831-836. Schoenwetter J. 1974. Pollen Records of Guila Naquitz Cave. American Antiquity 39(2):292-303. Smith BD. 1997. The Initial Domestication of Cucurbita pepo in the Americas 10,000 Years Ago. Science 276(5314):932-934. Warinner C, Garcia NR, and Tuross N. 2013. Maize, beans and the floral isotopic diversity of highland Oaxaca, Mexico. Journal of Archaeological Science 40(2):868-873.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Brand Extension Essay Example for Free

Brand Extension Essay Brand extension is a marketing strategy according to which a company marketing a product or a service launches a new offering (product or service) that is related to the one of the existing brands of the company, but offers different benefits and/or targets a different segment. Organizations use this strategy to increase and leverage upon their brand equity. When a firm is introducing a new product, it has the following 3 choices on branding: 1. Developing a new brand for the new product 2. Using the existing brand for the new product 3. Combining the new brand and the existing brand The use of 2nd and 3rd strategy is referred to as brand extension. Brands may be classified as one of the following: Parent Brand: If an existing brand gives birth to a brand extension, it is referred to as parent brand. Sub Brand: When a new brand is combined with an existing brand, it is called as sub brand. Family Brand: If a parent brand has links with multiple brands through brand extensions then it is called as family brand. There are a large number of ways in which brand extension can be accomplished. One of the vital differences is if the extension is in the same or different category of the product. Thus they can be classified as: vertical or horizontal extensions. Vertical extensions refer to the introduction of a related brand in the same product category but having a different price and quality balance. Vertical extensions offer the firm a quickest way to leverage upon the core product’s equity. As an extension strategy, vertical extension is widely practiced in many industries. For example, within automobile industry, the various brand models attempt to offer different price-quality bundles to attract various market segments. Often a product is extended in an attempt to just gain more of the market share. New product introductions using vertical extensions can extend in 2 directions, upscale and downscale vertical extensions. The vertical brand extension is that type of new product introduction that seems to be carrying less risk and seemingly having more appeal to management. The new product which is being introduced is in the same category as the parent product; aims at a same market segment as the parent, and may or may not enjoy the same acceptance as the parent. Upscale extensions involve a new product introduction by the firm with higher price & quality characteristics than the original product. It involves a new product introduction with lower price & quality characteristics than the original. Downscale vertical extensions may target sampling to a new segment, and bring some gain in market share. Generally, horizontal brand extensions either use or extend an existing product’s name to a new product in the same product category or to a product category new to the organization. There are 2 types of horizontal extensions which differ in terms of their focus area. They are termed as line extensions and category extensions. All the customers differ in terms of their usage needs. The brand has to fill the market with variety of products as per the needs of the segments. If a parent brand is used to brand a new product that targets a new segment in the market within the same product category that was previously served by the parent brand, it is called as line extension. Line extension leads to the addition of a new and distinct flavour or ingredient to the category. It sometimes might also lead to a new application for the brand or an introduction of a different form or size. For example, Bisleri is the pioneering brand in category of mineral water. Originally, Bisleri started off with 1 ltr bottle. But recently, the brand has launched bottles of different sizes and quantities. Brand Extension. (2016, Dec 08).